Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Conversion Table


1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres (m)
1 km = 0.6214 miles
1 m = 1.0936 yards
1m = 3.2808 feet
1 mile = 1760 yards
1 mile = 1.609 km
1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 foot = 0.3048 m


1 km2 = 100 hectares (ha)
1 km2 = 0.3861 square mile
1 km2 = 247.105 acres
1 m2 = 10.7639 square feet
1 ha = 10.000m2
1 ha = 2.4711 acres
1 square mile = 2.59 1 km2
1 acre = 0.4047 ha
1 acre = 4046.86 m2
1 acre = 4840 square yard
1 square yard = 9 square feet
1 square yard = 0.8361 m2
1 square foot = 0.0929 m2


1 tonne = 1000kg
1 tonne = 1.1023 US ton
1 US ton = 0.9072 tonnes
1 kg = 2.2046 pounds (Ib)
1 kg = 35.274 ounce (oz)
1 lb = 0.4536 kg
1 oz = 28.3495 gram


1 crore = 10 million
1 million = 10 lakh
1 lakh = 100000
1 billion = 1000 million


Banana is an important fruit crop of many tropical and subtropical regions of India. It is cultivated in India in an area of 830.5 thousand ha and total production is around 29,779.91 thousand tons. Main banana growing states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

The global production of banana is around 102028.17 thousand tons of which India contributes 29.19%. Besides India, other major banana producing countries are China, Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil and Indonesia.

Largest area under banana cultivation is in Tamil Nadu state followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states.

 India is the largest producer of banana in the world.

 More than 27% of total banana production takes place in Maharashtra and Gujarat states.

 Rainfall and humidity are quite less particularly in Maharashtra and also to some extent in Gujarat state, resulting in lesser incidence of insects, pests and diseases compared to Central and South America and South East Asian countries.

 A superior cultivar namely Grand Naine, well accepted in international market is being cultivated in sizeable area in Maharashtra and Gujarat states.

 Red banana cultivar which is preferred in some countries can create a market for itself with support of display, campaign etc.

 Banana is cultivated in sufficient acreage and in different agro-climatic conditions and thus is in a position to meet the large demands from importing countries on a continuous basis, provided planting and cultivation is well planned.

 Transfer of technology is easy as growers have organized themselves by forming cooperatives/ associations and have branded their product as “Mahabanana”.

 Agri Export Zone for promoting exports of banana has been established in Maharashtra in Jalgaon area.

 Post harvest handling facilities are available at a small scale at Navsari and Borsad in Gujarat state.

 Banana Export Facility Center with mechanical handling system has been set up at Saavada in Jalgaon and Basmantnagar in district Hingoli in aharashtra state

 Geographically, India is better placed compared to South East Asian, Central and South American countries for exports to Gulf countries.

 Special training programmes need to be conducted to give knowledge to farmers about production of export quality banana in Maharashtra.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013


1. Name the Commission that was constituted by the Union Government on 26 December 2012 to inquire into the different aspects of the brutal rape and assault incident of the girl on 16 December 2012
on the streets of Delhi and was asked to submit the report of its findings within three months?
(A) Kalelkar Commission
(B) Usha Mehra Commission
(C) Narendran Commission
(D) Mandal Commission
Answer: (B) Usha Mehra Commission

2. Life Time Achievement Award 2012 was conferred to an Indian by Ernst & Young. Name the person who was conferred with the award?
(A) Azim Premji
(B) Aditya Vikram Birla
(C) Gautam Thapar
(D) Ratan Tata
Answer: (D) Ratan Tata

3. The core of Milky Way is actually cloaked in dust which makes all stars unclear from telescopes of the astronomers, except the brightest stars. But these hypervelocity stars were useful in providing a peep into _________. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
(A) Deaths of stars in Milky Way
(B) Birth of the stars in the universe
(C) Deaths of the stars around the Sun
(D) Formation of stars in Milky Way
Answer: (D) Formation of stars in Milky Way

4. In a major victory, the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague has upheld India's right to
divert water from the project which is currently running in Kashmir. The court on Monday, 18 Feb 2013, rejected Pakistan's contention that India was violating the 1960 Indus Waters Treaty in the project in Gurez valley near Bandipura in north Kashmir. In its ‘partial award’ over the 330 MW project, the Court ruled that India would have to maintain a minimum flow in the river, known as Neelum in Pakistan. The rate will be determined by the Court in its final award, which is likely to be delivered by year-end. The ‘partial award’ has “no appeal” and is “binding” on both countries. Can you name the project?
(A) Rabi hydro-electric project
(B) Beas hydro-electric project
(C) Kishenganga hydro-electric project
(D) Chenab hydro-electric project
Ans: (C) Kishenganga hydro-electric project

5. Thirty Indian software product companies joined hands to form their own new association, marking a break-up with the IT industry body NASSCOM. What is the name of this newly formed association?
(A) Indian Software Product Industry Round Table
(B) iSpirt
(C) Both these are the same
(D) None of these
Answer: (C) Both these are the same

6. ICICI Bank, the largest private sector bank of India partnered with Aircel to announce the launch of
their mobile banking service. What is the name of this mobile banking service?
(A) Mobile Money
(B) Mobile Market
(C) Mobile Finance
(D) Mobile Corporate
Answer: (A) Mobile Money

7. Who was appointed as the group spokesperson and brand custodian of TATA Group on 6 February
(A) Cyrus Mistry
(B) Ratan Tata
(C) Manjushree Khaitan
(D) Mukund Govind Rajan
Answer: (D) Mukund Govind Rajan

8. I&B Ministry Constituted Expert Committee to Review Functioning of Prasar Bharti under the
chairmanship of?
(A) Sam Pitroda
(B) Shekhar Kapur
(C) Shri Jawhar Sircar
(D) Dr. B.K. Gairola
Answer: (A) Sam Pitroda

9. The Union Cabinet of India on 6 February 2013 gave its nod to the proposal of decreasing the
headcounts to what number in habitations under the government's flagship programme, Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, PMGSY
(A) 125
(B) 140
(C) 100
(D) 200
Answer: (C) 100

10. My India Initiative-A Digital Volunteer Programme was launched by which ministry of the
Government of India?
(A) Information and Broadcasting Ministry
(B) Agricultural Ministry
(C) Science and Technology Ministry
(D) New and Renewable Energy
Answer: (A) Information and Broadcasting Ministry

11. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 8 February 2013 arranged the first of its kind Live Twitter Conference. What was the theme of the conference?
(A) Urban Mobility India (UMI) Conference
(B) Community Radio: Road Travelled & Way Forward
(C) Climate Change and Sustainable Development Conference
(D) Live Twitter ConferenceAnswer: (B) Community Radio: Road Travelled & Way Forward

12. A group of various banks agreed to loan 937 crore Rupees for 1000-MW NTPL power project. NTPL power project is the joint venture of Tamil Nadu Power Generation and Distribution Corporation as well as Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC). Where will the project come up?
(A) Vishakhapatnam
(B) Tuticorin
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Kalpakkam
Answer: (B) Tuticorin

13. Which company launched WiFi-only Galaxy Camera in February 2013? The new WiFi-only Galaxy
Camera is powered by Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) operating system.
(A) Nikon
(B) Sony
(C) Samsung
(D) Cannon
Answer: (C) Samsung

14. Dabur India on 18 February 2013 launched Dabur Babool + Salt Powder Toothpaste. Who was
chosen for endorsing this brand?
(A) Bipasha Basu
(B) Sonakshi Sinha
(C) Salman Khan
(D) Irrfan Khan
Answer: (D) Irrfan Khan

15. Telecom Regulator Authority of India (TRAI) started the pre-consultation process for the countrywide __________. Fill in the blank with appropriate option.
(A) mobile number portability
(B) free roaming
(C) free international SMS
(D) lower STD rates
Answer: (A) mobile number portability

16. The Union Cabinet of India approved merger of Bharat Heavy Plate & Vessels Ltd. (BHPV)
Vishakhapatnam with which company?
(A) Akaltara Power Ltd.
(B) BEML Ltd.
(C) Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)
(D) Bharat Electronics Ltd.
Answer: (C) Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)

17. Centre for Science and Environment's (CSE) analysis of government data and the Global Burden of
Disease report's data on India has shown that it is the fifth leading cause of death in India after high
blood pressure, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoking and poor nutrition, with about 620,000 premature
deaths occurring from the diseases related to it. What is it?[Category: Environment Current Affairs]
(A) Alcohol
(B) Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(C) Air pollution
(D) Sanitation Hygiene
Ans: C

18. The Samajwadi Party on Wednesday, 13 Feb 2013, nominated popular stand-up comedian Raju
Srivastava as the party's candidate for the 2014 general elections. Now, he is all set to face Congress's
sitting MP and Union minister Sriprakash Jaiswal in the constituency. Raju Srivastava has been named
candidate for which parliamentary constituency by SP?
(A) Itawah
(B) Kanpur
(C) Amethi
(D) Lakhimpur Khiri
Ans: B

19. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) on Wednesday froze the bank accounts of two
Sahara group companies and attached their properties for lapses in the refund of Rs __________ crore
they had raised from investors. The market regulator also ordered a freeze on the bank accounts and
properties of group chief Subrata Roy Sahara and three other top officials. The orders against Sahara
India Real Estate Corporation (SIREC) and Sahara Housing Investment Corporation (SHIC) came after the  Supreme Court pulled up the two companies last week, seeking an explanation for their alleged noncompliance with its order to refund by November 30 last year the sum they had raised through optional  fully convertible debentures.
(A) 12000
(B) 16000
(C) 20000
(D) 24000
Ans: D

20. India's exports rose for the first time in nine months in January. Exports in January grew ______% to  $25.5 billion compared with the year ago month, while imports rose 6.1% to $45.6 billion, data released  by the commerce and industry ministry on Wednesday, 13 Feb 2013, showed. The trade deficit has now  widened to nearly $20 billion from $16.7 billion a year ago, just short of the all-time high of $21 billion in  October. Although demand for Indian merchandise in the West is still low, the latest trade data has  brought optimism among some officials that the situation will improve.
(A) 0.53
(B) 0.64
(C) 0.77
(D) 0.82
Ans: D

21. An Indian air carrier on Tuesday, 19 Feb 2013, offered 20 lakh tickets at heavily discounted prices for travel anywhere till December this year, becoming the second airline in the past 50 days to lure
travellers by drastically slashing fares. The airline is offering to sell tickets for any destination in India starting at 2,250, a good 40-60% cheaper than fares on normal days. The offer, which is valid till
February 24, was announced by the airline on Tuesday morning and sent flyers scrambling to book
tickets. Can you name the airline?
(A) IndiGo
(B) Jet Airways
(C) SpiceJet
(D) GoAir
Ans: B

22. An Indian billionaire is following in the footsteps of Warren Buffet and Bill Gates to become the first Indian to dedicate a majority of his wealth to philanthropy by signing up for the Giving Pledge. The
Giving Pledge was formed in 2010 to encourage the wealthiest in the US to give a part of their wealth
towards philanthropic activities. However, Buffett now wants to widen the group’s function outside the
US to India and China. Can you name the person who has pledged more of his wealth to charitable
(A) Azim Premji
(B) N R Narayanmurthy
(C) Mukesh Ambani
(D) Ratan Tata
Ans: A

23. Armed robbers have pulled off a spectacular heist at ___________ airport, making off with millions
of euros worth of diamonds on 19th February 2013. The raid saw the gang of thieves hit a Brinks
security truck as its contents were being loaded onto a Swiss aircraft bound for Zurich. VRT public
television initially spoke of the haul being worth 350 million euros ($465 million), but later changed their
figures to 50 million euros. If confirmed, the robbery would be one of the biggest diamond heists of all
(A) Heathrow
(B) Amsterdam
(C) John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York
(D) Brussels
Ans: D

24. Voting for the Tripura assembly elections began on Thursday, 14th Feb 2013, amidst tight security. In  all, 23,55,446 people, about half of them women, are eligible to exercise their franchise to decide the  fate of 249 candidates, including 15 women and many independents. Apprehending trouble by
separatist outfits and possible violence, a record 40,000 paramilitary and other security personnel have
been deployed, while two air surveillance teams led by senior police officials are conducting air
surveillance. What is the number of members in the Assembly in Tripura for which elections are
(A) 60
(B) 62
(C) 67
(D) 72
Ans: A

25. FE Best Banks Awards launched in February 1997, annually fetes banks that have delivered
exemplary performance on various parameters including growth, profitability, strength & soundness
amongst others. The awards are based on the FE Best Bank Survey and have emerged as the highest
award of banking excellence in the country. Which bank was named as winner in the Public Sector Banks  for this year award held in Mumbai on 20th Feb 2013?
(A) Allahabad Bank
(B) State Bank of India
(C) Bank of Baroda
(D) Punjab National Bank
Ans: C

26. Which mobile company launched an emergency alert service for the subscribers in Odisha, Bengal
and Kolkata on 1 February 2013? The service is directed towards the women primarily.
(A) Vodafone
(B) Bharti Airtel
(C) Aircel
(D) Tata Indicom
Answer: (B) Bharti Airtel

27. A woman has emerged as the Britain's worst serial killer after over 2.5 million criminal records
between 1770 and 1934 were placed online by the National Archives and revealed that she murdered
400 babies. The woman was dubbed the 'Angel Maker', a prolific serial killer responsible for the horrific crimes that sent shockwaves through 19th century Britain, the Daily Mail reported on Saturday, 23rd  Feb 2013. Can you name the woman killer?
(A) Mary Ann Cotton
(B) Amelia Dyer
(C) Jane Toppan
(D) Amelia Sach
Ans: B

28. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has said inactive pre-paid mobile phone
connections cannot be deactivated if they have a minimum balance of Rs. _______ in their account and
the time for considering ‘inactive’ will be 90 days. Under the amended regulations, an operator will have  to provide facility for reactivating numbers by paying a reasonable amount.
(A) 20
(B) 50
(C) 100
(D) 500
Ans: A

29. Who on 5 February 2013 took over as the top executive of the BK Birla flagship, Kesoram Industries  which is a 6000 crore Rupees company?
(A) Kumar Mangalam Birla
(B) Bharat Singh
(C) Manjushree Khaitan(D) Lalit Naik
Answer: (C) Manjushree Khaitan

30. Iran on 28 January 2013 announced that it had successfully sent into space a primate. Which primate  did it send into space?
(A) Worms
(B) Monkey
(C) Turtle
(D) Mouse
Answer: (B) Monkey

31. NASA on 1 February 2013 marked 10th anniversary of which Space Shuttle?
(A) Columbia
(B) Challenger
(C) Both of these
(D) None of these
Answer: (A) Columbia

32. The duo of Sania Mirza and a US player clinched the women's doubles title in the 2 million dollar
Dubai Duty Free tennis championship on Saturday, 23rd Feb 2013. This is Sania's 16th doubles title in
her career and fourth while partnering with US player with whom India's best ever woman tennis player shares a special bonding. Can you name the US player?
(A) Bethanie Mattek-Sands
(B) Nadia Petrova
(C) Katarina Srebotnik
(D) Cara Black
Ans: A

33. NASA scientists discovered the youngest black hole in our galaxy, Milky Way in February 2013. How far is this black hole from Earth?
(A) 26000 light years away
(B) 12000 light years away
(C) 10000 light years away
(D) 25000 light years away
Answer: (A) 26000 light years away

34. President Pranab Mukherjee and Prime Minister Mamohan Singh witnessed the Indian Air Force's
largest "day-dusk-night" firepower demonstration in the Rajasthan desert on Friday, 22n Feb 2013. The
exercise which was held at the Pokhran ranges saw the participation of 230 aircraft, including the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Mirage-2000, Jaguar, MiG-21, MiG-27, MiG-29 and the Hawk advanced jet trainer. What is the name of this Exercise organised by Indian Air Force in Jaisalmer?
(A) Flight Fist 2013
(B) Aero Fist 2013
(C) Force Fist 2013
(D) Iron Fist 2013Ans: C

35. BJP on Saturday warned the government against going ahead with the ______________ project,
saying the sentiments of crores of Hindus are attached to the issue and it will not tolerate any tampering
with the Ram Setu. Government is ignoring the recommendations of the RK Pachauri Committee report
and going ahead with the project. The Pachauri Committee, which submitted its report to the Supreme
Court, has said the shipping channel project is not viable on economic and ecological grounds.
Government has rejected the report and maintained that it intends to pursue the project which will cut
through the Adam's Bridge, popularly known as Ram Setu.
(A) IndoSino Channel
(B) Ramasamudram
(C) Sethusamudram
(D) RamaSethu
Ans: C

36. Scientists from NASA in the last week of January 2013 discovered an old star called TW Hydrae which  they believe could create new planets even now. How old is this star?
(A) 100 million years old
(B) 50 million years old
(C) 20 million years old
(D) 10 million years old
Answer: (D) 10 million years old

37. The Japanese scientists from the Saitama University in the first week of February 2013 filmed for the first time, the thoughts of which animal while it was tracking its prey?
(A) A fish
(B) A zebra
(C) An elephant
(D) A snail
Answer: (A) A fish

38. Reckitt Benckiser (RB) on 13 Feb 2013 signed a global partnership deal of 8-million US dollars with
which NGO?
(A) Smile Foundation
(B) Save the Girl Child
(C) Plan India Children
(D) Save the Children
Answer: (D) Save the Children

39. Twitter on 11 February 2013 launched its first pay-by-tweet service in whose partnership?
(A) American Express
(B) Microsoft Office
(C) Facebook
(D) Google
Answer: (A) American Express

40. Which third national stock exchange made its debut in India on 11 February 2013?
(A) SX40
Answer: (B) MCX-SX

41. Which company in February 2013 became the first Indian FMCG brand that crossed 5000 crore
Rupees mark in terms of retail sales in one year?
(A) Britannia's Tiger
(B) ITC's Sunfeast
(C) Parle-G
(D) None of these
Answer: (C) Parle-G

42. Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) acquired stake of Navistar International Corporation in how many
joint ventures?
(A) One joint venture
(B) Two joint ventures
(C) Three joint ventures
(D) Four joint ventures
Answer: (B) two joint ventures

43. Name the Iranian President, who visited Egypt for the first time after Tehran's 1979 Islamic
(A) Mohammad Khatami
(B) Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
(C) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
(D) Ali Khamenei
Answer: (C) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

44. Name the port whose operational controlled were transferred in the hands of Chinese Overseas Port
Holdings Ltd. by Pakistan in the last week of January 2013.
(A) Keti Bandar Port
(B) Gwadar port
(C) Karachi Port
(D) Bin Qasim Port
Answer: (B) Gwadar Port

45. Name the person who was nominated as the U.S. interior secretary for looking after the huge energy reserves as well as the national parks by the US President Barack Obama in February 2013.
(A) Sally Jewell
(B) Anne Marbury Hutchinson
(C) Phillis Wheatley
(D) Sarah Josepha Hale
Answer: (A) Sally Jewell

46. A new study using data from a pair of gravity-measuring NASA satellites found on 12 February 2013 that large parts of the arid __________ region lost freshwater reserves rapidly during the past decade. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
(A) Middle East
(B) South Eastern
(C) Saudi Arabia
(D) North Western
Answer: (A) Middle East
47. Astronomers in the third week of February 2013 discovered six speeding stars which were racing
through the space at a speed of 3.2 million kilometres per hour. The mass of these stars is equivalent to
(A) Moon
(B) Earth
(C) Milky Way
(D) Sun
Answer: (D) Sun

48. The Surrey Space Centre (SSC) of the University of Surrey on 26 February 2013 announced that a
nano-satellite carrying a smartphone was launched successfully into space from India. What is the name of this nano-satellite?
(A) STRaND-1
(B) Scream in Space
(C) iTesa
(D) Space Flight
Answer: (A) STRaND-1

49. Six foreign micro and mini spacecrafts as well as the Indo-French oceanographic study satellite were launched successfully by ISRO's PSLV-C20 rocket on 25 February 2013 from the spaceport at Sriharikota. What is the name of the Indo-French oceanographic study satellite?
(A) Polar Satellite
Answer: (C) SARAL

50. Researchers from Norway, South Africa, Britain and Germany, in the last week of February 2013
discovered a sunken and small continent beneath the Indian Ocean. What is the name of this newly
found lost continent?
(A) Gondwana
(B) Mauritia
(C) Reunion
(D) Laurasia
Answer: (B) Mauritia

51. How many satellites were launched successfully by ISRO's PSLV-C20 rocket on 25 February 2013
from the spaceport at Sriharikota?(A) Six
(B) Eight
(C) Seven
(D) Five
Answer: (C) Seven

52. Which Indian state was ranked at number 32 or the worst position in the crucial environmental
parameters of Environmental Performance Index (EPI) that evolved by Planning Commission?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Goa
(C) Sikkim
(D) Delhi
Answer: (D) Delhi


Animal Husbandry Division

1) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Dhamrod, District Surat, Gujarat.

2) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Andesh Nagar, District Lakhimpur, (UP).

3) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Similiguda, Sunabada (Koraput) Orissa.

4) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Suratgarh (Rajasthan).

5) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Chiplima, Basantpur, District Sambalpur, (Orissa).

6) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Avadi, Alamadhi (Chennai).

7) Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Hessarghatta, Bangaluru North.

8) Central Frozen Semen Production and Training Institute, Hessarghatta, Bangaluru North.

9) Central Herd Registration Unit, Rohtak (Haryana).

10) Central Herd Registration Unit, Ajmer.

11) Central Herd Registration Unit, Ahmedabad.

12) Central Herd Registration Unit, Santhapat, Ongole, District Prakasam (A.P.)

13) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Kalyani, District Nadia, (West Bengal).

14) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Srinagar (J&K).

15) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Suratgarh (Rajasthan).

16) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Textile Mill Hissar (Haryana).

17) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Gandhinagar, (Gujarat).

18) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Avadi, Alamadhi, (Chennai).

19) Regional Station for Forage Production & Demonstration, Mamidipally, Via Keshavagiri, Hyderabad.

20) Central Fodder Seed Production Farm, Hessarghatta, Bangaluru North.

21) National Institute of Animal Health, Baghpat (Uttar Pradesh).

22) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Kapashera Village, New Delhi.

23) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Pallikarni Village, Chennai.

24) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Gopalpur, District 24 Parganas (West Bengal).

25) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Bombay.

26) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Hyderabad.

27) Animal Quarantine & Certification Service Station, Bangalore.

28) Central Sheep Breeding Farm, Hissar (Haryana).

29) Central Poultry Development Organisation, Southern Region, Hessarghatta, Bangaluru North.

30) Central Poultry Development Organisation, Eastern Region, Bhubaneshwar (Orissa).

31) Central Poultry Development Organisation, Western Region, Aarey Milk Colony, Mumbai.

32) Central Poultry Development Organisation, Northern Region, Industrial Area, Chandigarh.

33) Central Poultry Performance Testing Centre, Gurgaon (Haryana).

34) Central Institute of Coastal Engineering For Fishery, Bangalore

35) Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, Cochin.

36) National Institute of Fisheries Post Harvest, Technology & Training, Cochin.

37) Fishery Survey of India, Mumbai.

Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries

India ranks first in respect of buffaloes, second in cattle & goats, third in sheep, fifth in ducks & chickens and tenth in camel population in the world.

The contribution of livestock and fisheries sectors to the total GDP during 2009-10 was 29.7 percent.

Semen Production in the country has increased from 22 million straws (1999-2000) to 62 million straws (2010-2011) and the number of inseminations has increased from 20 million to 52 million. As per the impact analysis report submitted by NABARD, overall consumption rate has increased from
20 % to 35 %.

India, with poultry population of 648 million (as per Livestock Census 2007) and egg production of 59.84 billion number. Export of poultry & poultry products increased from nearly Rs. 11 crore in 1993-94 to about Rs. 301 crore in 2010-11.

The country was declared free from Rinderpest on 25.05.2006 and from Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia on 25.05.2007.

India is the second largest in aquaculture production in the world. The fish production during 2010-11
is estimated to be 8.29 million tonnes.

In India, food consumption basket is also diversified in favour of non-food grain items like milk, meat, egg and fish. Women play a big role in value addition and marketing of these items.


Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries

National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)
National Dairy Development Board, located at Anand, Gujarat, set up in 1965 and declared as a statutory body corporate in 1987 under the NDDB Act, is a premier institution to accelerate the pace of dairy development on cooperative lines in the country. Dr. (Ms.) Amrita Patel is the Chairperson of the Board since 26th November 1998.

National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)
National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) was set up in September 2006 with its headquarters at Hyderabad to realize the untapped potential of fisheries sector, fish culture, processing & marketing of fish, application of modern tools of research & development for optimizing production and productivity in fisheries. Dr. P. Krishnaiah is the Chief Executive Officer of the organization.

Some naturally occurring acids

Vinegar - Acetic acid

Sour milk (Curd) - Lactic acid

Orange - Citric acid

Lemon - Citric acid

Tamarind - Tartaric acid

Ant sting - Methanoic acid

Tomato - Oxalic acid

Nettle sting - Methanoic acid

Wednesday, April 03, 2013


Rivers & Countries

Nelson - Issuing from NE of Lake Winnipeg & flowing to Hudson Bay.

Kolyma - N-E Siberia

Olenek - Nothern Siberian region

Don - Fourth largest in Europe. Rises near Tula & flows to Sea of Azov

Pechora - Rises in Urals & flows into Arctic

Liao - Liaoning province of China

Fraser - British Columbia (Canada).

Loire - The longest river in France

Daugava - Rises in Russia, Belarus, Latvia & then into Gulf of Riga

Tagus - Spain

Neman River - Belarus & flows into Baltic Sea

Ebro - Spain

Garonne - Spain

James River - Virginia, United States

Waikato - New Zealand’s longest river

Merrimack - N. E. United States.

Islands & the Controlling Nation

Denmark - Bornholm, Faeroe Islands, Greenland

Estonia - Hiiuma, Saarema

Finland - Aland Islands

France - Corsica, Martinique, Reunion, Kerguelen (North of Antactica)

Germany - Helgoland

Greece - Crete,

Italy - Sardinia, Sicily

Norway - Svalbard

Portugal - Azores, Madeira

Spain - Balearic Islands, Canary islands

Sweden - Gotland

United Kingdom - Isle of Man, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Western Isles, South Sandwich , Falkland Island, Ascension Island, Bermuda.


Mountain Chains

1. Pindhos Mountains - Greece

2. Dinaric Alps - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herz., Serbia & Montenegro

3. Carpathians - Slovakia & Romania

4. Balkan Mountains - North of Rhodopi Mountains in Bulgaria

5. Rhodopi Mountains - Bulgaria

6. Matopo Hills - South western Zimbabwe

Important Lakes

1. Lake Tana - Ethiopia. Source of Blue Nile. Not formed by rift valley

2. Lake Alberta - Border of Uganda, DRC

3. Lake Assal - Sudan Ethiopia border. Lowest point of Africa

4. Lake Biwa - Japan’s Largest lake near Nagoya

5. Lake Zaysan - Kazhakstan

6. Lake Tonle Sab - Cambodia

7. Lake Toba - Sumatra (Crater)


Important Industrial Centres

1. Muroran - Iron & Steel - Hokaido, Japan

2. Birmingham - Iron & Steel - U.K.

3. Houston - Oil Refinery - USA

4. Windsor - Automobile - Canada (on Detroit river)

5. Westphalia - Iron & Steel  -Germany

6. Shenyang  -Iron & Steel  -China (Pittsburg of China)

7. Kyoto - Handicrafts & Toys - Japan

8. Milan - Textile - Italy

9. Turin - Automobile - Italy

10. Leipzig - Optical Insruments - Germany

11. Sarnia - Oil Refinery - Canada (East of Michigan)

12. Akron - Synthetic Rubber - South of Lake Erie (Ohio)

13. Chelyabinsk - Iron & Steel - North of Magnitogorsk

14. Nagoya - Ship Building - Japan

15. Multan - Pottery - Pakistan (E of Ganganagar)

Famous Dams/Falls

1. Aswan Dam - Nile - Egypt

2. Kariba Dam - Zambezi - Zambia & Zimbabwe

3. Kainji Dam - Niger - Nigeria

4. Boyoma Dam - Zaire - Congo

5. Aksombo Dam (Volta Dam) - Volta - Ghana

6. Victoria Falls - Zambezi - Zambia & Zimbabwe

7. Owen Falls - Lake Alberta (White Nile) - Uganda

8. Stanley Falls - Zaire - Congo


Famous Mining Regions

1. Lumbabshi - Copper - Zaire

2. Wankee - Coal - Zimbabwe

3. Kasia - Diamond - Zaire

4. Rustenberg -  Platinum - S.Africa

5. Mt. Tom Price - Iron Ore - Australia (Hamersley Ranges)

6. Ipswich - Coal & Lignite - Australia (Near Brisbane)

7. Hubei - Coal - China

8. Kansu (or Gansu) - Bauxite - China

9. Daqing - Crude Oil - China (Heilongjiang province)

10. Dakang - Crude Oil - China

11. Chauk - Crude Oil - Burma

Miscellaneous Geographical Features

1. Cape York Peninsula - Northern Australia to the east of Gulf of Carpentra. Weipa (Bauxite) also lies in the same peninsula on the Carpen

2. Kanto/Kwanto Plain - The largest area of flat land in Japan comprising Tokyo & other cities.

3. Ungava Peninsula - Canada – East of Hudson Bay & south of Baffin Island.

4. Odessa - Leading port of Ukraine in North Black Sea

5. Far East - Japan, Korea, China & Taiwan

6. Indo-China - India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam & Laos

7. South East Asia - Myanmar, Malaysia, Thialand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, Philipinnes.

8. Middle East - South west Asia & North Eastern Egypt.

9. Deepest Lake - Lake Baikal

10. Largest manmade lake - Lake Volga

11. Irrawady river - Flows into bay of Bengal

12. Mekong river - Drains into South China Sea

13. Red River - Gulf of Tonkin

14. Salween River - Gulf of Martaban.

15. Macao - Administrative region of China, on China’s southeastern coast

16. Isle of Man (U.K.) - Midway between the coasts of Northern Ireland and England

17. Harbin - Capital of Heilongjiang province

18. Bandung - Java (Indonesia).

19. Sapporo - Hokkaido

20. Kra Isthmus - Narrowest point on the Malay Peninsula, in Thailand

21. Larut Plain - Malaysia

22. Bangka Island - lying east of Sumatra, Indonesia. Famous for Tin mining & separated from Sumatra by Bangka strait.


Miscellaneous Facts - Geographer

1. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859, the same year in which Darwin published his “Origin of Species”.

2. Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate.

3. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer.

4. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach, Getterer divided the whole world into natural regions. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he delimited regions even on the basis of climate, vegetation, etc.

5. Peter Kropotkin & V.V. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought.

6. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. Edward Ullman is a strong
proponent of this theory.

7. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled, “Exceptionalism in Geography” in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing, ‘Perspectives on the nature of Geography’ in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography.

8. Areal Differentiation is also known as “Chorology” or “Chorography”.

9. Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. It considers man as a modifier of nature.

10. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other.

11. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power.

12. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. He also rejected teleological view.

13. Marco Polo was an Italian. Bartholomew Diaz, was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti, second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world.

14. The term ‘Compage’ was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment.

15. L.D. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden).

16. Genre de vie means genre of living i.e. same pattern of living. Regional synthesis is associated with B.J.L. Berry who wrote ‘Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis’. Teleology is opposite to causal

17. Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his material environment.

18. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote, ‘Where is the research frontier’.

Monday, April 01, 2013

Some Important Straits & Gulfs

1. Bass Strait - Australia & Tasmania

2. Torres Strait - Australia & New Guinea

3. Cook Strait - North Island & South Island in New Zealand

4. Dardanelles Strait - Aegean Sea & Sea of Marmara

5. Davis Strait - North Atlantic Ocean and Baffin Bay, NE Canada

6. Juan de Fuca Strait - Washington and southern Vancouver, Canada

7. Kerch Strait - Sea of Azov & Black Sea

8. Mackinac Strait - Lake Michigan & Lake Huron

9. Magellan Strait - South American mainland & island of Tierra del Fuego

10. Makassar Strait - Borneo & Sulawesi.

11. Messina Strait - Italy & Sicily

12. Sunda Strait - Java & Sumatra

13. Bonifacio Strait - Corsica Island (France) & Italian island of Sardinia (south).

14. Dover strait - England & France. Connecting English Channel & North Sea.

15. Soya Strait - Sakhalin to the North & Hokkaido to the south.

16. Tsushima Strait - Korea & Kyushu

17. Tsugaru Strait - Hokkaido & Honshu

18. Kii Strait - Honshu & Shikoku

19. Strait of Otranto - Connecting the Adriatic with the Ionian Sea. Italy & Greece.

20. Strait of Hormuz - Persian Gulf & Gulf of Oman

21. Strait of Tiran - Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea.

22. Tsugaru Strait - Between Hokkaido & Honshu.

23. Johor Strait - Singapore & Malay Peninsula

24. Gulf of Carpentera - Cape York Peninsula & Arnhem Land

25. Gulf of Bothnia - Arm of Baltic Sea between Finland & Sweden.

26. Gulf of Lion - Arm of Mediterranean Sea in Southern France

27. Gulf of Martaban - South of Myanmar. Salween flows into it.

28. Gulf of Sidra - North of Libya. Inlet of Mediterranean.

29. Gulf of Tonkin - South of China & East of Vietnam

30. Gulf of Mannar - India & Srilanka. Tambraparni from India & Aruvi Aru from Srilanka flows into it.

31. Spencer Gulf - East of Adeilade.

32. Gulf of Bo Hai - West of Korea.


Imaginary Lines & the countries through which they pass

Tropic of Cancer - Hawaii, Mexico, Bahamas, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad (northern most point), Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan

Equator - Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, DR of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, and Kiribati.

Tropic of Capricon - Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, French Polynesia, Australia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia


1. Britain of the South - New Zealand

2. City of Eternal Springs - Quito

3. Great White way Broadway,-  New York

4. Island of Fire - Iceland

5. Land of Marble - Italy

6. Land of Morning Calm - Korea

7. Land of Perpetual Greenery - Natal

8. Never Never Land - Prairies of North America

9. Pearl of the Orient - Hong Kong

10. Power Keg of Europe - Balkans

11. Quaker City - Philadelphia, USA

12. Queen of the Adriatic - Venice

13. Queen of the Arabian Sea - Kochi

14. Venice of the East - Alappuzha, India

15. Venice of the North - Stockholm

16. White City Belgrade, - Yugoslavia

17. White Man’s Grave - Guinea Coast

18. World’s Loneliest Island - Tristan da Cunha

19. Spice Garden of India - Kerala

20. The Sea of Mountains - British Columbia

21. The Spice Island of the West - Grenada

22. George Cross Island - Malta

23. Pillars of Hercules - Gibraltar

24. Garden Province of South Africa - Natal


Miscellaneous Facts: WORLD II

1. Congo River is also known as River Zaire.

2. Altai Mountains extend from the headwaters of the Ob’ and Irtysh rivers in southern Siberia in Russia, into Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and into Mongolia. The mountain range extending from northern California to British Columbia is called Cascades. Mt. Rainier near Seattle is its highest point. The loftiest mountain range in USA is Sierra Nevada. The Cambrian mountains are located in Wales.

3. Giants Causeway is located on the coast of northern Ireland. It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow cooled and solidified.

4. The major peninsulas of Russia starting from west to east are Kola peninsula, Kanin peninsula, Yamal
peninsula, Gyda peninsula & Taymyr peninsula.

5. Buryat Republic lies north of central Monglia. It is the homeland of buryats.

6. The deserts of Western Australia from North to South are Tanami Desert, Great Sandy desert, Gibson desert & Great Victoria desert. Simpson desert lies in the central region north of L. Eyre.

7. San Diego city lies in the extreme southwest corner of California just above Mexico. Las Vegas lies in Nevada state & near Mojave Desert. Wellington, Capital of New Zealand comes under West European type of climate. In New Zealand the southern island is more developed compared to the northern. In china type of climate precipitation is around 100 cm & well distributed throughout the year. Marine west European climate experiences rainier winters than summers.

8. The climate of steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 30 cm of rain every year. The world's largest zone of steppes is found in central Russia and neighbouring republics of Central Asia

9. Langley is a unit equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter of irradiated surface, used to measuresolar radiation

10. Baotou is in inner Mongolia, China & is known for iron & steel complex. Caracas, Capital of Venezuela comes under monsoon type of climate. Sao Paulo has China type of Climate. Adelaide has Mediterranean type of climate.

11. Khyber pass in Pakistan is located in the Hindu Kush range. It links Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kabul. The route of the Bolan Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahar in Afghanistan. Peshawar, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Gujranwala & Lahore are from north to south in N. Pakistan.

12. Peurto Rico Trench is the deepest in Atlantic.

13. Liechtenstein, independent principality in central Europe; bounded on the east by Austria, and on the
south, west, and north by Switzerland. Malta is an independent republic, south of Sicily. San Marino,
republic in southern Europe, an enclave in northern Italy

14. Irtish River is the 9th longest in the world & has its source in Altai Mountains Russia.

15. Montego Bay is in Jamaica where the Sea Law Treaty was signed.

16. Rio de la Plata is the estuary formed from the combination of Uruguay River & the Parana River.

17. Andesite line marks the boundary between continental shelf & continental slope. Indian Ocean was
known to the Greeks as Erythraean sea.

18. Zambia is an important producer of Copper & Zimbabwe is known for gold. Qeshm is the only island of Iran & lies in the strait of Hormuz. It is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf.

19. A person born in Puerto Rico is a US citizen. Atlantic Ocean is the roughest of all oceans. Its coastline is larger than those of Pacific & Indian Ocean put together. It receives more fresh water than any other ocean.

20. Prague is situated on the bank of river Vltava. Madrid (Manzarenes), Dublin (Liffey) & Rotterdam (Rhine, Maas & Scheldt).

21. Tuaregs are the tribal people of the Sahara. They speak a Berber language called Tamarshak.

22. California (Sunkist), Spain (Seviue), Tangier (Tangerine), China & Japan (Mandarin) are the various varieties of oranges.

23. Pustaz are temperate grasslands of Hungary. The cattle kept by the Masai are the ‘zebu’ cattle.

24. Big Inch (Gulf of Mexico to NE US), Tap Line (Gulf & Arabian Peninsula to Mediterranean) &
COMECOM (Urals & Volga to East Europe) are some of the important pipelines.

25. Birmingham is the second largest city in Britain. Aztecs & Mayas were flourished both in Mexico &
surrounding regions. Incas were in Peru & the Andes. Polygon of Drought in Brazil is the NE region.

26. Oil is found in Venezuela (Lake Marcaibo), Iraq (kirkuk, Mosul, Basra), S. Arabia (Ghawar, Dharan, Abaqaiq), Chechnya (Grozny), Russia (Sakhalin), Nigeria (Port Harcourt). Yadavaran is the largest is Iran’s largest on shore oilfield.

27. Mt. Logan is the highest peak of Canada. Mt. Toubkal is the highest peak of Atlas mountains.

28. Antwerp is the chief port and second largest city of Belgium. Kaohsiung (Southern Taiwan) is among the top five busiest sea ports of the world.

29. Mexico is the leading producer of silver, sulphur & fluorite. Denver is the capital of Colorado. Hudson Bay is the world’s largest inland sea.

30. Brazil shares its boundary with all except Chile & Ecuador. The highest active volcano in the world Mt. Ojas del Salado (Argentina Chile is in the Andes).

31. Trans Andean Railways connect Buenos Aires & Valpariso. European transcontinental railway runs from Paris to Warsaw. Orient express runs from Paris to Istanbul. The Canadian Pacific railway runs from Saint John in New Brunswick to Vancouver on the pacific coast. Canadian National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax

32. Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopian Island & White Nile From Lake Victoria. White Nile & Blue Nile meet at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

33. Port Said (Mediterranean) is towards North & Port Suez towards south (Red Sea).

34. The northwest countries of Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia are together called the ‘Maghreb’ which in Arabic means west. Oil Palm is an important agricultural product of Nigeria.

35. Botswana is the worlds largest producer of gem quality diamonds (jewellery diamonds).

36. Liberia is the largest producer of coffee & rubber in Africa.

37. Scandinavia applies to Norway, Sweden, Denmark & sometimes Iceland. Baltic states include Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. Mont Blanc is situated on the French-Italian border.

38. Bavaria is the largest state of Germany & Munich is its capital. Kalinangrad is a part of Russia but
separated from it by Lithuania.

39. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (the Kiel or Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). Murmansk is the only ice free port along the Arctic Ocean route to Vladivostok.

40. Two important varieties of Eucalyptus in Australia are Jarrah & Karri.

41. New Zealand generates 7 % of its energy from geysers. The highest peak of the country is Mt. Cook.

42. Amu Darya forms a part of the border between Afghanistan & Turkmenistan. The enormous desert that covers Turkmenistan is Karakum.

43. The Euphrates originates in Turkey & flows past Syria & Iraq before meeting the Tigris. The joint waters of Tigris & Euphrates are called Shat-al-Arab. The Tigris also originates from Turkey.

44. Hokkaido is connected to Honshu across Tsugaru strait by an under sea tunnel. Kurile Islands lie to the NE of Hokkaido & separate the sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific.

45. The top 5 countries in terms of Hydro power potential are China, Brazil, CIS, Canada & India. While the top 5 in installed capacity are USA, Canada, China, Brazil & Norway.

46. Chimborazo is the highest extinct volcano & lies in Ecuador.

47. Botswana has the highest prevalence rate of AIDs while South Africa has highest absolute number of AIDS patients followed by India.

48. The great channel separates the Andaman & Nicobar Island from Sumatra.

49. Hammerfest, town in Northern Norway is the northernmost town of Europe. Stromboli is known as “the light house of the Mediterranean”. Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine.

50. Granite rock is metamorphosed into schist rock.

51. Grand Coulee dam (USA) is on Columbia river & Cobora Basa Dam (Mozambique) is on Oragnbe river. Hoover Dam (USA) is on Colorado river.

52. Mixed farming refers to sowing two or more crops in mixture in the same field. Multiple cropping means the planting of two or more different crops on the same acreage for harvest within the same crop year.

53. Liverpool, city in northwestern England, on the Mersey River, near its mouth on the Irish Sea.

54. The following features are arranged in increasing geological age East African rift, Gulf of Aden, Atlantic Sea & Mediterranean sea.

55. The Pantanal is the world’s largest freshwater wetland in Brazil. Pripet marshes are large wetlands along Pripet river in Belarus. The Great Okefenokee Swamp is the largest swamp found in all of North America.

56. The Bie Plateau occupies most of central Angola & the Okavango river rises here. Huila plateau lies to its south.

57. The top 5 wind power generating countries are Germany, Spain, USA, India & Denmark.

58. A geyser erupts intermittently. Hot springs are more common than geysers & the former are not explosive in general.

59. Tibet is enclosed between Kunlun to the North & Himalayas to the south. Takla Makan desert, Tarim basin & Turfan basin all lie between Tien Shan range to the north & Kunlun to the south.

60. Strato Cones (Cotopaxi), Dormant Volcano (Vesuvius), Shield Volcano (Mt. Kilavea, Mt. Etna),
Composite cone. Examples of composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji (Japan), Mount St Helens (USA) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines).

61. Cayman Trench, also called Bartlett Deep is a spreading ridge on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.

62. The Russian cities from NW to SE are St. Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky near Kazan), Magnitogorsk. Later from west to east Omsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, Irkutsk, & Vladivostok.

63. Rostov (Gateway to Caucasus), St. Petersburg (largest port of Russia), Ivanovo (Machester of Russia) & Nizhny Novgorod (Detroit of Russia).

64. Mt. Rainier, Mt. Hood, Mt. Shasta are from North to South in NW USA. Polland is the world most
polluted country.

65. The Cocos plate lies to the west of Panama in the Pacific north of Nazca plate. Caribbean plate lies east of Panama in the Carribean region. Scotia plate lies to the south of South America.

66. Dead Sea, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa are all rift valley lakes but Lake Victoria is not. Mangala dam is in Pakistan over river Jhelum. Tarelad Dam, the earth’s larges earthern dam is in Pakistan. Columbia plateau is volcanic in origin. Ozark plateau is domed. Tibetan plateau is intermontane. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York. Cayuga is the longest of the finger lakes.

67. Azores, Bermuda, Canary Island & Cape Verde Island is the sequence from North to South.

68. White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian sea lie in that order from west to east.

69. In Bangladesh when Tista joins Brahmaputra it is known as Jamuna. When later Ganga joins the
combined river is called Padma first & Meghna further downstream.

70. The mountain peaks in the Himalayas of Nepal going from west to east is Mt Api (W. Nepal), Mt
Dhaulagiri, Mt Annapurna, Mt Manaslu (Central Nepal) & Mt Gaurishankar, Mt Everest, Mt Makalu &
Mt Kanchenjunga (E. Nepal). Mt Pidurutalagala, the highest point in Sri Lanka.

71. Albania, Macedonia & Bulgaria lie to the North of Greece. Biskra depression is in Algeria.

72. Fremantle Doctor is a cooling afternoon sea breeze which occurs during summer months in coastal areas of Western Australia. The Guba wind occurs along the Papua coast (South of Papua New Guinea).

73. Forests cover 64 percent of Japan’s land area & it is one of the world’s largest importers of wood. The most densely populated province of Canada is Prince Edward Island. Klamath mountains are in California.

74. The lakes in Canada from North to south are Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Wollaston, Reindeer & Winnipeg. The cities of Canada along the St. Lawrence from North to South are Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton & Windsor. Sudbury lies to the north of Lake Huron.

75. Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. John (New Foundland) & Saint John (New Brunswick) are in Canada. The centre for steel industry in Canada is Hamilton. The city of Toronto is the largest in Canada followed by Montreal & Vancouver.

76. Basque people live along the Pyrenees in Spain. The Gap between the Pyrenees & the Central Massif is called the Belfort gap. The physical feature of France from North to south are Ardennes, Vosges, Jura & the Alps. Bohemian Forest is a highland region, rising mainly along the border between the Czech Republic and Germany, and also in Austria.

77. The southernmost of Japanese islands is Ryuku which lies to the south of Kyushu & North of Taiwan. Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan. Kitakyushu (Northern tip of Kyushu) is a conurbation of five cities. The most populous province of China is Sichuan.

78. Fushun, Shenyang (Formerly Mukden – Main industrial cluster of Manchuria) & Anshan are in that order from North to South all in Liaoning province. Lop Nor is famous for nuclear activity. Qaidam basin is to the north of Tibet plateau & to the south of Kunlun Mountains.

79. The Sea of Galilee is Israel's largest freshwater lake & lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second lowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea. It is to the north of Dead Sea.

80. Ahaggar Mountains, also Hoggar Mountains, plateau region, southern Algeria, in the center of the Sahara. The major basin of Africa is El Djouf, now occupied by the Niger River Basin in West Africa. Karoo is a semidesert plateau regions in southern South Africa. Adamawa Plateau region, west central Africa, is in central Cameroon, extending into southeastern Nigeria and western Central African Republic. Futa Jallon, highland region in west central Guinea. Tibesti mountainous region of the central Sahara, in northern Chad, extending into northeastern Niger and southern Libya.

Various Geographical Institutes

1. Hydrographic Biological Commission - Scandinavia

2. Marine Biological Association - United Kingdom

3. Research Institute of Marine Fisheries - Canada

4. Coast & Geodetic Survey - United States

Oceanic Zones & Types of Deposits

Hamada - Bare rock or rock with a thin veneer of pebble (Arabic)

Reg - Desert pavement of loose stones (N. Africa)

Serir - Desert pavement of loose stones, coarser and older than reg (N. Africa)

Debba - Extensive sandy plain (N. Africa)

Erg - Vast region deeply covered with sand and topped by sand dunes (N. Africa)

Playa - Extremely flat, vegetation free area of silt or clay in the lowest part of a closed basin

Salina - Playa with saline water or kept moist by rising groundwater

Chott - Closed basin containing a dry lake or playa (N. African)


Clouds & Characteristics

Cirro Cumulus Mackerel Sky

Cirrus - Mare’s Tail (As they resemble horse’s tail)

Cumulus - Cauliflower Heads

Altostratus - Watery Look


Megatherms - Equatorial and tropical, tropical rain forests

Mesotherms - Tropical and sub tropical, tropical deciduous forests

Microtherms - Temperate and high altitude

Heskitotherms - Arctic and alpine regions

Miscellaneous Facts: WORLD

1. The eastern regions of humid subtropical areas receive rainfall throughout the year like equatorial regions. Isotherms are irregular but closely spaced in Northern Hemishpere.

2. Alpha centauri is also known as Proxima Centauri. Asthenosphere lies above mesosphere. Ox Bow lake is a characteristic of the river in its old age.

3. Steam fog occurs when cold air blows over warmer waters & Advection fog occurs when moist air blows over cold surface. The only gas, not uniformly distributed over the entire atmosphere is ozone.

4. One nautical mile is equal to 1.85 kilometers & one mile is equal to 1.6 kms. Albatross Cordillera is in

Pacific ocean.

5. Prince Edward Crozet ridge & Amsterdam – St. Paul Plateau are located in the Indian ocean. Lakshadweep-Chagos ridge, St. Paul ridge, Amsterdam-St. Paul plateau divide the Indian ocean into
almost two basins.

6. Emperor Seamount chain is in the Pacific Ocean. The maximum width of the continental shelf is off the arctic coast of Siberia. The deepest continental shelves surround Antarctica. In most of the areas the continental shelf is formed by constructive ocean.

7. The evolution of mid-Atlantic ridge can be dated back to Pliocene age.

8. Continental shelf has maximum depth of 200m. Continental slope has a depth of about 3600 m. Abyssal hills have height of 1000 m & guyots are 1100 m high.

9. Zaire canyon is riverine, Canyons of south California are dendritic, Canyons of Bering Sea are the largest & Oceanographer canyon is small gorge.

10. Atlantic Ocean has the maximum percentage of continental shelf area followed by Pacific & Indian.

11. Red clay deposit is widely found in Pacific Ocean. Pteropod is found mainly only in the Atlantic ocean. Radiolarian & Diatom ooze can be found at greater depth than Pteropod & globigerina ooze because siliceous ooze are less soluble while calcareous oozes are easily soluble.

12. A zone in which the density of water increase with increasing depth is called Pycnocline zone.

13. Silt is smaller in size than sand but larger than clay. Pebble is smaller than cobble.

14.Salinity of ocean is a function of latitude. Gulf of Bothnia records the lowest salinity of less than 2 %.

15. Lower the salinity higher is the freezing point.

16. Kiel Canal shortens the distance between London & Kaliningrad.

17. C horizon is not a part of mineral horizon. The dominant species of an ecosystem are more prone to climatic changes. Trasnfromation process of pedogenic regime includes humification & mineralization. Entisols are also highly productive in some regions. Chelating agents are associated with the process of podzolization.

18. Climate & biotic factors are active soil forming factors whereas time, topography & parent rock are passive. The transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone. Allelopathy is a phenomenon in which toxins produced by one species inhibit the growth of other.

19. USDA soils & their zonal equivalents are: Vertisols (grumusols), Mollisols (Chernozem), Spodosols
(Podzols) & Alfisols (Degraded chernozems). The loess serves as an ideal parent material for chernozem soils.

20. Soils & the vegetation supported are: brown earths (deciduous forests), podzol (heath forest), chernozem (steppe grasses), grumusol (savanna grasses). Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei.

21. The types of humus in terrestrial environment are: mor, moder & mull. Mor is a type of humus, which occur largely in coniferous forest soils and the moorlands soils. This humus arise under conditions of lowbiological activity in soil. Moder is a transitional form of humus between mull and moder, characteristic for sod-podzolic soils, loesses and mountain grassland soils. Mull is a type of humus characteristic for chestnut soils & arises under grassland conditions. Mull is well humified organic matter. The favourable pH for the growth of cereal crops is 6.5.

22. Climax (community) which is the hypothetical optimal community that would eventually develop under ideal conditions and without human interference. If climate dictates the nature of this community we describe this as a climactic climax whereas if the soil conditions limit the type of climax that develops we speak of an edaphic climax (E.g. Savannah). Where there has been some interference that degrades the climax we say that secondary succession has occurred and if we now view this secondary community as on its way back to the climax we can refer to this as a sub-climax.

23. Aestivation refers to the state of inactivity adopted by desert animals during the hottest & driest season. The oldest animal fossil has been found in Zambia.

24. Devonian period is the age of fishes. Ambhibians & reptiles evolved during carboniferous period.

25. Sun Spots are cooler areas of the sun. The dark lines in corona are called ‘Fraunhofer lines’.

26. For an earthquake at a particular spot the shadow zone of P-waves invariably exist between 103 & 143 degree form the earthquake focus.

27. The variation of wind with elevation through the friction layer is represented by an equi angular spiral known as the Ekman spiral. Beaufort scale ranges from 0 to 12.

28. Saturn is known as Jewel Planet & Venus as veiled planet.

29. Primary waves can change into secondary waves under certain conditions due to refraction. Surface waves or long period waves cover the longest distance of all seismic waves. Focus is also known as hypo centre.


Famous Ores of India

1. Kudremukh - Iron Ore - Karnataka

2. Aliabet - Offshore oil field - Gulf of Kambhat

3. Bailadila - Iron Ore - Chattisgarh

4. Gurumahisani - Iron Ore - Mayubhanj, Orissa

5. Balghat - Copper, Manganese - M.P (Malanjkhand)

6. Koraput - Bauxite - Orissa

7. Kolihan - Copper - Rajasthan

8. Kodarma - Mica J- harkhand

9. Lohardaga - Bauxite - Jharkhand

10. Gumla - Bauxite - Jharkhand

Various Geographical Features

1. New Moore - Deltaic Island & disputed site between Bangladesh & India

2. Kacchativu - Fishing area leased to Sri Lanka

3. Mandav Hills - Gujarat. North of Gir Hills.

4. Rarh Plains - West Bengal.

5. Mikir & Rengma Hills - Assam

6. Dudma Falls - Machkund river, Orissa.

7. Thekkadi Sanctuary - Kerala

8. Cambarjua Canal - Goa

9. Sirhind Canal - Sutlej

10. Upper Bari Doab Canal - Ravi

11. Hampi - Karnataka

12. Keibul Lamjao - Only floating national park in Manipur Loktak lake.

13. Pulicat Lake - Barred by long sandpit – Sri Harikota Island.

14. Gohana Lake - Situated near Devprayag in Garhwal

15. Wular & Dal Lake - Formed by tectonic forces of faulting.


Wetlands of India

Harike - Punjab

Ashtamudi - Kerala

Bhoj - Madhya Pradesh

Kabar - Bihar

Kanji - Punjab

Kolleru - Andhra Pradesh

Nalsarovar - Gujarat

Pichola - Rajasthan

Renuka - Himachal Pradesh

Sasthamkotta - Kerala

Sukhana - Chandigarh

Ujni - Maharashtra

Doabs of India

1. Sind Sagar Doab - Indus & Jhelum

2. Jech/Chej Doab - Chenab & Jhelum

3. Bari Doab Beas, - Ravi & Satluj

4. Rachna Doab - Ravi & Chenab

5. Jalandhar/Bist Doab - Sutlej & Beas


Famous Beaches of India

1. Gopalpur & Chandipur beach - Orissa

2. Bheemunipatnam beach - Andhra Pradesh

3. Anjuna, Calangute & Baga beach - Goa

4. Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach - Gujarat

5 Karwar, Maple Beach - Karnataka


1. Batura glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

2. Hispar glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

3. Skamri glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

4. Biafo glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

5. Baltora glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

6. Siachen glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

7. Sonapani glacier - Pirpanjal region

8. Gangotri glacier - Kumaon-Garhwal region (Uttaranchal)

9. Milam glacier - Uttaranchal

10. Pindari glacier - Uttaranchal

11. Rambang glacier - Kanchenjunga-Everst region

12. Khumbu glacier - Mt. Everest region

13. Zemu glacier - Kanchenjunga-Everest region (Sikkim)

Forestry Research Institutions

1. Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous Forests - Jorhat

2. Institute of wood science & Technology - Bangalore

3. Tropical Forestry Research Institute - Jabalpur

4. Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding - Coimbatore

5. Temperate Forest Research Institute - Shimla

6. Centre for Forest Productivity - Ranchi

7. Centre for Social Forestry & Environment - Allahabad

8. CAZRI - Jodhpur


Natural Gas Based Projects

1. Dahej Power Project Gujarat
2. Pata Petrochemical Project U.P.
3. Usar LPG project Maharashtra
4. Lakwa LPG project Assam

Miscellaneous Facts: INDIA

1. Largest SC community is chamar. The rainiest period for Tamil Nadu is October-November & not
December-January. Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India
mainly in Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. India has monopoly in the production of Lac.

2. Rama's Bridge, Nala's Bridge or Adam's Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The Pamban Bridge also called Indira Gandhi Bridge lies on the Indian end of the Palk Strait that connects Rameswaram island to mainland India.

3. Banbasa wild life sanctuary is in U.P. The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar – Sri Sailam tiger reserve.

4. Rivers of East India from North to south are Damodar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani-Baitrani & Mahanadi.

5. The rivers of Peninsular India from North to south are Krishna, Penneru, Palar, Cauvery & Vaigai.

6. The major tribes who inhabit the mountains of Kerala are Kanis, Uralis, Kadar, Kanikkar, Paniyar etc.. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race. Even the Angami Nagas & the Badgis of the Rajmahal Hills in Bihar belong to the Negrito race.

7. The largest permanent migration of the Indian outside the country in the last century was associated with the sugarcane plantations.

8. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port. Kolkata is riverine port. Kandla is tidal port. Mumbai is biggest port. Nava-Sheva (JLNP) is the busiest port.

9. Kadam project is in Andhra Pradesh & Gurusoppa project in Karnataka.

10. Bheraghat falls (Narmada), Sivasamudram falls (Cauvery) & Hundru falls (Subarnarekha)

11. Tungabhadra water dispute (A.P. & Karnataka), Krishna Water dispute (Maharashtra, Karnataka &
Andhra Pradesh).

12. The major fishing harbours of India are Cochin, Madras & Vishakhapatnam

13. The following steel plants are in order of decreasing capacity: Bhilai, Durgapur & Burnpur.

14. Kerala coast is an example of emergent coast. Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala are important.

15. In 2001 census, the proportion of children population to total population was the least among jains & the sex ratio was the least among sikhs.

16. The correct sequence of ranges/hills in peninsular plateau region from north to south is Garhjat Hills, Balaghat range, Palkonda range, Cardamom hills.

17. Valmiki Tiger reserve & Kabar Lake bird sanctary are in Bihar. Ujni wetlands is in Maharashtra & Deeper Beel wetlands in Assam. Shahpur Kandi irrigation project is in Punjab & Teesta Barrage in West Bengal. Kanheri National Park (Maharashtra) & Chandaka National Park (Orissa)

18. India is divided into five seismic zones. Zone I is most secure & Zone V being most vulenerable.
Aluminium plants are located near source of power & not near raw material.

19. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under ravines. Aliabet is the largest island in the estuary of the

20. Kanthi coastal plain is in West Bengal & Nadhra plain is in Eastern Ghat.

21. Saddle Peak (North Andaman), Mount Thuiller (Great Nicobar), Mount Diavolo (Little Nicobar) & Mount Ford (Rutland Island).

22. Amarkantak plateau has radial drainage pattern. Garland canal project connects the rivers of east & west India.

23. Assam shares its boundary with seven other Indian states, Mizoram with three states & Tripura with 2 states. Both M.P touches 5 states & Chattisgarh touches 6 states. UP touches 8 states.

24. Total number of India states that form international border with the neighbouring countries is 17. Five Indian states have common border with Bangladesh.

25. In India the international boundary shared with different countries is Bangladesh (4096 km), Pakistan (3310 km), Myanmar (1458 Km).

26. Tso-morari is a huge mountain lake in Southeast Ladakh. Kolleru Lake is a large freshwater lake in India's Andhra Pradesh state. Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal) is in Kollam district of Kerala state in south India. Ashtamudi Lake is designated a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

27. Highest point is Singapore is Timah Hill. Lake Wular is the largest freshwater lake of India. Loktak lake is formed due to faulting. Vembanad Lake due to offshore bar formation in backwaters of Kerala.

28. Brahmaputra River has maximum surface run off while Ganga has maximum catchment area.

29. The name of Pench National Park, M.P. was changed to "Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park". Orissa coast is mainly depositional in character.

30. Zojila pass is from Srinagar to Ladakh. Western ghats were uplifted in the Cenozoic period.

31. Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states - Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P, Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura & Mizoram. It does not pass through Orissa.

32. The most prominent India-Bangladesh border issues are the Tin Bigha Corridor, Muhuri Char and New Moore ( or South Talpatty/ Purbasha island).

33. Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) comprised 16.2 percent and 8.1 percent respectively of the total population, according to Census of India 2001.

34. Indian board of wildlife is headed by Prime Minister of India. Gulf of Kutchh is a coral reef area.

35. Ragi, Bajra & Jowar are the three most important millets produced in India. Groundnut, rapeseed &
mustard are the most important oil seeds produced in India. India imports 40 % of its oilseeds needed.

36. U.P, Punjab & Rajasthan are the top 3 milk producing states in India. In terms of sheep population
Rajasthan ranks number one.

37. India is divided into 35 meterological sub divisions. IMD defines normal monsoon year as the rainfall between june-september is within plus/minus 10 per cent of the normal figure of 88 cm for the whole country.

38. The Pangong Tso (largest in Himalayas) & Tso Moriri lakes are in J & K region. Gurudogmar in Northern Sikkim is the highest lake.

39. Port Blair is located on South Andaman. Biggest island on Andaman & Nicobar island is Middel
Andaman. Highest point in the whole island is Saddle Peak on North Andaman Island. Narcondam island lies to the north of Barren Island, both being to the east of Andamans. Mallamalai hills, Palakonda range (both in A.P), Javadi Hills & Shevaroy Hills, Panchamalai hills, Sirumalai hills, Varushnad Hills in the eastern ghats (all 5 in Tamil Nadu) are in that order from north to south. Nilgiris (Extreme west TN), Annamalai hills & Cardamom hills from north to south in western ghats.

40. Moran river drains into Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar in Uttar Pradesh. Chandor Hills lie to the west of
Ajanta range in Maharasthra. To the south of Ajanta range lies Balaghat. Rajmahal Hills lie in NE
Jharkhand, forming the NE edge of Chhotanagpur plateu. Ramgarh hills lie in North Chhattisgarh &
Bastar plateau in south Chhattisgarh. Dandakranya overlaps Bastar plateau. To the south of Satpura range lies Mahadeo hills & Gawilgarh hills. Rayalseema uplands lie to the south of Telangana plateau.

41. Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal (Tamil Nadu) and Yanam (A.P) on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé (Kerala) on the Arabian Sea.

42. Zoji La (J&K) Bara Lacha, Shipki La (H.P) Thag La, Niti & Lipu lekh (Uttaranchal) in that order form NW to SE.

43. Mountains (11 %), Hilly region (18.6 %), Plateau (27 %) & Plain area (43 %) of total india’s area.
Sectoral Consumption of electricity is Industrial (35%), Agriculture (31%), Domestic (21%) & Commercial (6%)

44. The east coastal plain is known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi & Krishna & Carnatic between Krishna & the Cauvery rivers.

45. Rectangular drainage pattern (Kosi & its tributaries), Superimposed pattern (Damodar & Chambal),
Radial pattern (Amarkantak & Kathiawar region).

46. The maximum number of National Parks is in M.P & maximum sanctuaries in Andaman & Nicobar

47. Peaty & organic soils are found in Kottayam & Alappuzha districts of Kerala where they are called Kari. Tidal or Littoral forests occur around the deltas, estuaries.